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PAOB Religion amongst the Jews an independent power . 169 The Jews in the dispei-aion 171 The prophetic exi^ectations live on in Judaism . .174 Tlie framework of the priestly law universalistic . .178 Antinomy between strict monotheism and the limitation of the true religion to one people . Its sobriety and simplicity recommended it to the practical and sceptical Arab.

.162 The Jewish people identified with its religion . , 164 Prophetic universalism does not appear to pass over into Juda- ism . Must we require it absolutely and from the outset to embrace every- thing ?

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the publisher to a library and finally to you. .109 57 58 61 65 69 77 80 81 82 86 90 91 94 96 98 100 103 CONTENTS. C 120 Ethical monotheism 124 Anticipations of the prophets concerning the future of Tahwism 125 Universalism of the second Isaiah 128 His utterances concerning Cyrus considered in connection with this universalism . 131 The prophetic Yahwism and the Israelitish nationality . 37 freely sought and found satisfaction for those needs which w^e only half recogmzed^ if recogn Laed at all, by the primitive Islam. Was it not obvious for the worshipper of the national god, Yahweh, to look about in his perplexity for extraordinary aid? hand to chastise the sins of Israel and its neighbours ?

Usage guidelines Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. .137 Their mutual relation in Amos « 138 „ „ in Isaiah 141 ,^ y, in Jeremiah 144 „ „ in the second Isaiah .... Prophetic Yahwism not at once taken up into the national consciousness . If the mystic element was almost entirely wanting at first, and if the pressure of the sense of sin was left unrelieved, Qufism and the belief in the mediation of Mohammed himself and of the saints so assiduously honoured, filled up the gap. And where should he expect to find it if not in the quarter where the supreme power lay, and whence the very danger he feared threatened his people ? Even before the Assyrians appeared in Palestine, Amos, overpowered by his moral indignation, had regarded them in this light and had announced their approach.^ His successors spoke and thought as he. 125 thing, not only the tumult of the peoples, but all nature likewise, subservient to the working out of one great purpose.

And if this be so, then Islam's victories, apart from the fact that they 1)2 36 I. were prepared and partly carried out by force of arms, cannot be urged in proof of its universalism.

This lesson is taught by all history, and not least by the first century of Islam.

.187 Relation of tliis incpiry to Jesus and to the recognition of the yigiiificauce of his i)ei'sonality . 206 The Pharisees 208 Internal contradictioi LS in Scribism 211 Its powerlessness to realize its ideid . It is true that from the settlement at Medina onwards his following gradually increases. There is not a trace of enthusiasm or of spiritual awakening. It is a bargain — sometimes struck, moreover, under pressure of violence and the instinct of self-preservation. It was they who supported or restored it when it threatened to collapse.

199 Significance of Essenism for the appreciation of Judaism . There is nothing whatever to show that Mohammed met an existing want or satisfied the longings of his people. They were the cement that held the structure together.

We encourage the use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. In the first place, I must thank my friend the Eev. But I was not long in perceiving that the execution of this plan would take more time than I could well spare, and that, after all, the product of my exertions would be unworthy to occupy its place in the Series for which it was destined. INTKODUCTIOK ISLAM PAQl National religions and universal religions .... 3 Is Islam a universal religion 1 5 The connection of the universal with the national religions the explanation and measure of their universalism . .21 The influence of Judaism 25 Apparent in the representation of the Qordn as the book of Allah .......... It remains for me to attempt to justify this opinion, and to this attempt I must strictly confine myself. old popular animistic belief that has really lost none of its force for the masses.^ Nature-worship and spirit- worship are still the religion of the Javanese. Neither would it be fair to cite the degenera- tion of the '*five pillars" as a proof that Islam has not attained supremacy in Java. 41 field of the spiritual life and the religious convictions it has to be content to play the part of a mantle that covers all unrighteousness, and by that very means sustains and defends it, then surely we have found a sign of poverty and feebleness that deprives the spread of Islam in the Indian Archipelago of all value as a proof of its universalism. It leads his worshippers to call with redoubled zeal upon Yahweh, and to offer him more numerous and costly sacrifices than ever. For what was that power, in the view of the prophets, but an instrument in Yahweh's ^ See Ezek. They never dreamed of the possibility of car- rying them back to a single cause or deducing them from it. A remarkable passage in Amos shows that even in the eighth century the people looked: forward with longing to " the day of Yahweh."^ What conception they had formed of it does not appear; but the humiliation of Israel's foes and their subjection to Israel's god unquestionably formed one feature in it. But, as I have said, it lies in the nature of the case that ethical monotheism, even in the period of its genesis, must give a fresh turn to expectations with regard to Tahweh and the peoples. But what draws them thither and what they seek there is the thorah of Yahweh, the knowledge of his ways, wherein they desire to walk. Is it surprising, then, that he should expect to see this one Ood, the first and the last, beside whom there is none other, recognized and adored by even the remotest peoples? In Yahweh alone, shall they say, have we health and might ; to him shall they come, and all that are inflamed against him shall be put to shame." ^ It is not superfluous, however, to inquire in what sense all this is meant, for in the second portion of Isaiah the heathen are often placed in a servile relation to Israel.