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Later, Junker readily hailed Erich Ebeling’s studies on the Semitic part of the (see Ebeling, 1941).

These lists represent a milestone in Armeno-Iranian scholarship and still today are of fundamental importance, but they are far from complete. The subsequent investigation of these problems is accordingly closely connected with the advances made in Iranian studies that have to a large extent followed upon the well-known extensive archeological discoveries. The first to prove that Parthian was the source of many Arm. Thus, a word like - “neat, smart,” but has no counterpart in other IE. consonant shift and the problems involved see especially de Lamberterie, 1978, pp. In view of the important role played by “paradises” in Achaemenid Iran (note Gk. On the other hand the existence of ancient borrowings dating back as far as the time of the Median Empire, as assumed by Frye, 1969, pp. 528ff.) It is thus clear that a merely quantitative and statistical assessment of the loanwords is inadequate. The majority of these Parthian loanwords were, however, undoubtedly borrowed in a “Late Old Parthian” or rather an “Early Middle Parthian” period. This analysis is restricted to a semantic classification of the most important and best attested Ir. Thus they can be assumed to reflect faithfully the phonetic values of Arsacid Parthian. It is perhaps surprising to find markedly Zoroastrian and by the same token non-Christian names like -) used by Christian people or even monks. (with several subdivisions according to the syntactical relations between the two elements of the compound) and the new formations derived from those names by the addition of special hypocoristic suffixes to mutilated parts of them.

Indeed, completion could not have been attained at that time since relatively little was then known about OIr. In particular, the discovery of many new texts in several Mid. languages, and thus also the understanding of the vocabularies of those languages, has made it possible to recognize many more Arm. and to define more exactly the material already known. 213, has called attention to the fact that Hübschmann was unable to provide Mid. evidence for more than forty percent of those words which he himself regarded as Ir. Of particular importance here are the new findings in the field of Ir. languages, could be assumed to be a loanword from Iranian even if no Iranian evidence for such a word were found. Similar problems arise in connection with a number of words that have been lost in Iranian and preserved only in Armenian (see Bolognesi, 1977, pp. belong to one and the same layer is to be expected a priori because of the long period of Ir.-Arm. - “enclosure”), such a borrowing is in fact easily understandable, even though in view of the phonological difficulties presented by the word it may be preferable to regard it as an indirect borrowing. loanwords, namely those found in the Bible translation. A chronological difference lies behind the divergent treatment of Ir. in such cases reflects the phonetic state of some Western Mid. When proper names are borrowed they do not usually undergo any change of form but if they do it is usually a slight change that remains fixed. It applies equally to the likewise inherited one-stem names, which had only one word stem originally.

Junker took an interest in the living language as such and gave relevant descriptions of its “literature” and dialectal grouping (1914a; 1930b).

During World War I, Junker served in a prisoner-of-war camp as an interpreter and translator.

C.; we find the first attestation of the name of the country in OPers. D.: Western Armenia came under the rule of the Romans and later the Byzantines, whereas the far greater eastern part of the country, the so-called “Great Armenia” or the “Persarmenia” of the Byzantine historiographers, came under Persian control and was fully annexed by Bahrām V Gōr some years later, in 428 A.

D., and from then governed only by Sasanian margraves. Iranian Loanwords in Armenian The Iranian loanwords in early Armenian are either fully integrated into the language or, at times, cited as foreign words. The words can be traced from Achaemenian times through Parthian and Sasanian to the intrusion of the Muslim technical terms into Iran.

On the one hand the phonetic shape of the Armenian words sheds light on the sounds the Iranian words must have had at the time when they came into Armenian, and on the other hand, one may also observe their adaptation and their morphological and/or lexical integration into Armenian. This means that the words containing those phonemes can be assumed to be loanwords even if the original Ir. Likewise characteristic of Iranian loanwords are special final consonant combinations, in particular -, which we find in the orthographically least ambiguous Mid.

, appear only exceptionally in words inherited from IE.

period, although this does not mean that it is possible to date each borrowing precisely. vocabulary, even though they are attested by only a few words, seem to belong to the time before Macedonian and Seleucid rule over Iran, i. chiefly to Achaemenid times, when Armenia was under Iranian domination but not yet thoroughly Iranianized (see Meillet, 1911/12, pp. The order followed is that of the Armenian alphabet. These borrowings from the Iranian religious vocabulary did not occur as a result of the close Irano-Armenian symbiosis during the Arsacid period.

The terminology involved is not connected with any particular religious ideas such as those of Zoroastrianism but reflects the religious notions current among the people at large as is revealed by the fact that in the Bible translation even the disciples of Christ and the angels were designated by two terms of Iranian provenance: ), and even numerals, adverbs, and other indeclinables, may be carried out in different ways.

Mesrop Maštocʿ) and which is characterized from the very beginning of the literary documentation by a large number of Iranian loanwords. Since these Armenian highlands had been subdued by Cyaxares about 600 B. and so had become part of the Median Empire, the conditions had been provided for the intensive influence of Iranian culture and customs on the Armenians and their language. The independence of Armenia from the Seleucids was not gained until 189 B. The Armenian kingdom, whose power and size had been enlarged considerably in particular by king Tigranes I called the Great (ca. C.), had become a bone of contention between the Parthians and the Roman Empire (see Chaumont, 1976) ever since L. Though the Christianization of Armenia in the third century and its rise to Armenian official religion shortly after 300 A. loosened the close ties between Iranians and Armenians, ties that had until then been close even in matters of creed, little changed in the political situation even under the Sasanians (who ruled over Iran from 224 A.