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Brazilian dating norms

Records have documented cruelty to children by adults throughout the ages and across societies.

Many Renaissance scholars argued that children had their own unique needs, which were distinct from adults; however, this perspective was primarily held by the upper middle class [7].

A dualistic perspective about children emerged during the Reformation in the 16th century.

Many immigrant families are reluctant to seek or accept formal assistance from medical and social service institutions given past experiences with oppression, fear of being deported, and general distrust of authority figures [2].

Despite these trends, the literature examining child abuse in immigrant and ethnic minority families is quite minimal when compared to the larger picture of child abuse/maltreatment research.

Hispanic infants comprise the largest portion, representing more than half of all births in 26 states including California, Texas, and New Mexico [3].

The number of white children in the United States declined between 20, and by 2020, they are projected to make up 49% of this population [29,45].

Many require new skills to navigate a new social and cultural system.

Furthermore, immigrant families may be isolated, and isolation, along with the stressors, increases these families' vulnerability to child maltreatment and other problems [2].

In a meta-analysis of articles published between 19 on child abuse in America, researchers found that only 12% of the studies focused on ethnicity [5].

Of the 489 articles that did examine ethnicity, 52.3% found ethnicity to have a statistically significant effect on child abuse and help seeking, which emphasizes the importance of considering the role of ethnicity in child abuse and neglect.

Childhood was not necessarily viewed as a distinct stage of the life cycle; rather, children were viewed as miniature adults [6].