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For Delphacidae, the status of the higher groupings is discussed under “systematics”. 2014 and related groups: a revision with special reference to rice-associated species (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea).

A new species of delphacine fulgorid with notes on four other species. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 23(3): 102-109.

Some new species of in America North of Mexico (Homoptera: Fulgoridae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 23(4): 128-133.

These groups are most readily separated by features of the head.

The Fulgoromorpha have their antennae located below their eyes in side view (as opposed to in front of the eyes), and have distinct ridges (“carinae”) on the face, in particular a pair that separates the side of the head from the front of the head, but frequently one that follows the midline of the face. A new genus of new world Tropidocephalini (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Delphacinae), with the description of two new species.

Five new genera of delphacine fulgorids (Homoptera – Fulgoridae – Delphacinae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 24(1): 11-15.

Some species of , new and old (Homoptera: Fulgoridae: Delphacinae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 44(2): 198-200.

Also, the antennae of Auchenorrhyncha is (in most but not all groups) 3-segmented, with the last segment long and bristle like (most true bugs, aphids and psyllids have longer, filiform antennae). New species of the planthopper genus (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Delphacidae) from Mesoamerica.

Figure 4d from Hu et al 2017 Within the Auchenorrhyncha, there are groupings, usually treated as infraorders: the Cicadomorpha (cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, spittlebugs) and the Fulgoromorpha (planthoppers and lanternflies). Transactions of the American Entomological Society 140: 185-208.

The validity of the Auchenorrhyncha as a suborder (i.e., its monophyly) has been questioned, but current evidence strongly suggests that it is a natural group.

The Auchenorrhyncha are mostly jumping insects, with uniformly textured wings (as opposed to the true bugs), 3 segmented tarsi, and generally hard-bodies (as opposed to aphids and scale insects).

Traditionally, however, delphacids were considered to be in the order Homoptera (“same-wing”, a reference to the uniform texture of the front wings), but studies beginning in the mid-90s have concluded that the true bugs (the Heteroptera [“varied-wing”], the old “Hemiptera”) are derived with the old order Homoptera.