Start Free women and gratdas xxx

Free women and gratdas xxx

.193 The Church always recognised the tendency of character to govern opinion 194 Total destruction of religious liberty 194 The Monasteries the Receptacles of Learning Preservation of classical literature. 263 The Eastern clergy soon sank into submission to the civil power 265 Independence of the Western clergy. — Bise of the dowry 276 Second stage the establishment of monogamy . 286 Position of the Greek wires 287 The Courtesans Elerated by the worship of Aphrodite . XI PAOB Asceticism produced a very low view of the character of women. They contained no instruments of moral teaching analogous to our institution of preaching, or to the moral preparation for the reception of the sacrament, or to confession, or to the reading of the Bible, or to religious education, or to united prayer for spiritual benefits. 69 For the first tiine, under the influence of Christianity, a great moral movement passed through the servile class. settled barbarian prisoners to cul- FBOM CONSTANTINO TO CHABLEMAGNE. During the long and dreary trials of the barbarian invasions, when the whole structure of sodeiy was dislo- catody when vast districts and mighty cities were in a few months almost depopulated, and when the flower of the youth of Italy were mown down by the sword, or carried away into captivity, the bishops never desisted from their efforts to alleviate the sufferings of the prisoners. Ambrose, disre- garding the outcries of the Arians, who denoimced his act as atrocious saci'ilege, sold the rich church ornaments of Milan to rescue some captives who had fallen into the hands of the Goths, and this practice — ^which was afterwards formally sanctioned by St. The existence of these two institutions is sufficient to show the injustice of judging the two societies by a mere comparison of their charitable institutions, and we must also remember that among the ancients the relief of the indigent was one of the most im- portant functions of the State. It took place once a month, and consisted of five modii ^ a head. A severe legislation controlled their acts, and to secure a regular and abundant supply of com for the capital became the principal object of the provincial governors. See Hume's Essay on the Popi Uou8ne89 of Ancient Nations. 75 monthly distribution of unground com by a daily distribution of bread, and added, moreover, a portion of pork. A yery few Pagan examples of charity haye, indeed, descended to us. He Christians of drawing men into was at last miraculously detected the Church by their charities, by the Novatian bishop Fau L Socrates {Hist, Ecc L vii. Even the eai'ly Oriental monks, who for the most part were extremely removed from the active and social virtues, supplied many noble examples of charity. Ephrem, in a time of pesti- lence, emerged from his solitude to found and superintend a hospital at Edessa.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. .181 Monachism Causes of its attraction 183 New value placed on obedience and humility. The Pythagoreans enjoined religious cere- monies for the purpose of purifying the mind, and expiatory rites were common, espeda Uy in the Oriental religions. Ovidius, a rich martyr of G^ul, 5,000 ; Chromatius, a Boman prefect under Diocletian, 1,400 ; Hermes, a prefect in the reign of Trajan, 1,250.* Pope St. In the fourteenth century, slavery was almost unknown.* tivate the desert lands of Italy; le chiese, e i monisteri, non per and before the barbarian invasions altra cagione, a mio credere, se non their numbers seem to have much perch^lamanumissione^nnaspezie increased. Guizot has devoted di alienazione, ed eradai canoni pro- two chapters to this subject. When we remember that the population of Rome probably never exceeded a million and a half, that a large proportion of. The ridicule of Ludan, and the vain efforts of Julian to produce a rival system of charity within the limits of Paganism,^ emphatically attested both its pre-eminence and its catholicity. He was burnt by the Inquisi- tion of Peru.^ Most commonly, however, the theological notions about witchcraft either produced madnesfi or deter^ mined its form, and, through the influence of the clergy of the different sections of the Christian Church, many thousands of unhappy women, who, from their age, their loneliness, and their infirmity, were most deserving of pity, were devoted to the hatred of mankind, and, having been tortured with horrible and ingenious cruelty, were at last burnt alive. 1304.^ Leo Africanus notices the existence of a similar institution at Fez, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, and mentions that the patients were restrained by chains,^ and it is probable that the care of the insane was a general form of charity in Mahommedan ootintries. 139 body, were but little likely to be moved either by the pathos of old assodatioiis, and of reverent, though mistaken, worship, or by the grandeur of the Serapeum, or of the noble statues of Phidias and Praxiteles.

254 Co Tiaecration of Secular Bank The Pagan Empire became continually more despotic . 278 Women in the poetic age of G-reece 279 Women in the historical age ranked lower. 294 General estimate of G^reek public opinion concerning women . 302 Indisposition to marriage 304 Legal emancipation of women 304 Unbounded liberty of dirorce. — History of the opinions of Pagans and Christians on the subject 324 The celibacy of the clergy. 339 The barbarian invasions assisted the Church in purifying morals 340 Barbarian heroines 341 Long continuance of polygamy among the Kings of G-aul . 343 Laws of the barbarians 344 Strong Christian assertion of the equality of obligation in mar- riage * . 351 Condemnation of divorce 352 Compulsory marriage abolished 353 Condemnation of mixed marriages. The first were the spectdations of a few highly cultivated individuals, VOL. The second were indissolubly con- nected with the worship, hopes, and fears of a vast religious flfystem, that acts at least as powerfully on the most ignorant as on the most educated. Having sought in vaia to elude his addresses, having been dragged from her house by the minions of the tyrant, the faithful wife obtaiiied permission^ before yielding to her master's embraces, to retire for a moment into her chamber, and she there, with true Koman courage, stabbed herself to the heart.^ Some Protestant ^ Justin Martyr, Tertnllian, and fica del Suimdio ragionato (V enezia, Cyprian are especially ardent in 1788), pp. this respect ; but their language ^ Ambrose, De Virginibtt Sy iii. is, I thi^, in their circumstances, ' Eusebius, Ecc Us. The aspirations of good men were in a different direction. "We have already edly accomplished in obedience to noticed them coming into being, ap- Christian principles. In the ancient societies, slavery in a great measure replaced pauperism, and, by securing the subsistence of a very large proportion of the poor, contracted the sphere of charity. In a very early period of Roman history wo find occasional instances of distribution ; but it was not till A.u.c. 691, by Cato of Utica, who desired by this means to divert popularity from the cause of Caesar, under whom multitudes of the poor were enrolling themselves. There can, howeyer, be no question that neither in practice nor in theory, neither in the institutions that were founded nor in the place that was assigned to it in the scale of dnties, did •charity in antiquity occupy a position at all comparable to that which it has obtained by Chiistiamty. The agapse or feasts of love were intended mainly for the poor, and food that was saved by the fasts was devoted to their benefit. The Council of Nice ordered that one should be erected in every city. Chrysostom the church of Antioch supported 3,000 widows and virgins, besides strangers and sick.

.306 Amount of female rirtae which still subsisted in Borne . 308 Legislatire measures to enforce female rirtue . .312 Moralists begin to enforce the reciprocity of obligation in mar- riage ..•...•••.. — Growth of the mystical concep- tion of chastity 316 Christian Influence Laws of the Christian emperors 316 Effects of the penitential discipline, and of the examples of the martyrs 317 Legends 318 Asceticism greatly degraded marriage 319 Disapproral of second marriages. 33& The canon law unfavonrable to the proprietary rights of women . 345 This doctrine has not retained its force 346^ Condemnation of transitory connections. 347 A religious ceremony slowly made an essential in marriage . — Its contrast to the Christian ideal 361 Conspicuous part of women in the early Church . But a moment^s reflection is sufficient to display the injustice of such a con- clusion. The ethics of Christianity were part of a religion. and neither had nor could have had any direct influence upon the masses of mankind. In the second centum hominem interfecerit.* — case she was a murderess, because^ Lisle, Dtt Swicide, p. Being captured during the Diocletian persecu - tion, and fearing the loss of their chastity, they agreed by one bold act to free themselves from the danger, and, casting them- selves into a river by the way, mother and daughters sank unsullied in the wave.' The tyrant Maxentius was fasci- nated by the beauty of a Christian lady, the wife of the Prefect of Home. The virtues that are most suited to tho- servile position were in general so little honoured by anti- quity that they were not even cultivated in their appropriate- sphere. The coloni, who were attached to- In Sweden, the abolition of slavery the soil, were much the same as the in the thirteenth century was avow- mediaeval serfs. Bemi, all melted down or sold their church vases to free prisoners. Cyprian sent a large sum for the same purpose to the Bishop of Nicomedia. Caiarity finds an extended scope for action only, where there exists a large class of men at once independent and impoverished. by tho simple fact that for several centuries the immense majority of these were habitually supported by gratuitous distiibution H of com. The Cassia-Terontia law, as it was called from the consuls under whom it was at last established, was largely exliended in ita operation, or, as some think, revived from neglect in A.n.c. the Eomans had public hospitals- * Spardanus, Hadrian, is maintained in a very learned * Capitolinus, Antonintia, and valuable, but little-known * Capitolinus, Anton., Marc, work, called Collections relative to Aurel. The histoiy of charity presents so few salient features^ so little that can strike the imagination or a Eiest the attention, that it is nsnally almost who Uj neglected by historians ; and it is easy to concciye what inadequate notions of onr existi Dg charities conld be gleaned firom the casual all Tisinma in plaj B or poems, in political histories or conrt memoirs. Even in the days of persecution, collections for the relief of the poor were made at the Sunday meetings. Another hospital was soon after founded by St Pammachus; another of great celebrity by St. Xenodochia, or refuges for strangers, speedily rose, especially along the paths of the pilgrims. Pammachus founded one at Ostia ; Paula and Melania founded others at Jerusalem. 64, WATEBLOO LECTTTBES ; a Study of the Campaign of 1815.

Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of any specific book is allowed. But the Chris- tian notion of the enormity of little sins, the belief that all the ■details of life will be scrutinised hereafter, that weaknesses of character and petty infractions of duty, of which the historian and the biographer take no note, which have no perceptible influence upon society, and which scarcely elicit a This is well shown by Pressens6 in his Hist des Trois -premiers BUdes, 6 HISTORY OF EUBOPEAN MORALS. 31 The extreme misery, however, resulting from the civil wars under Constantine, had rendered it necessary to authorise the old practice of selling children in the case of absolute destitution, which, though it had been condemned, had prob- ably never altogether ceased. There is scarcely any other single reform so important in the moral history of mankind as the suppression of the gladiatorial shows, and this feat must be almost exclusively ascribed to the Christian Church. Honorina prohibited any slave who had been a gladiator passing into the service of a senator; but the real object of this last measuie was, I imagine, not so much to stigmatise the gladiator, as to guard against the danger of an aimed nobility.^ A much more important fact is that the spectacles were never introduced into the new capital of Constantine. In the alleviation of ^2 HISTOBT OF EUROPEAN MORALS. Ignorant and superstitious, believing as a matter of religious conviction that countless daemons filled the air^ iitiributing every fluctuation of his temperament, and eveiy oxcoptional phouomenon in surrounding nature, to spiritual agency ; dolirious, too, from solitude and long continued aus- U^'itic H, ihm his £Bkther and mother. His little child was separated from him, clothed in diriy rags, subjected to every form of gross and wanton hardship, beaten, spumed, and ill treated. The indiscreet questioner almost immediately died, and the relations, shocked by the manifest providence, desisted from their opposition, and even implored the young saint to accom- plish her design.^ St. Sometimes parrait B made it a dying request to their children that they would preserve none of their property, but would bestow it all among the poor.^ It was one of the most honourable inci- dents of the life of St. Your father may implore you to wait but a short time to bury those near to you, who will soon be no more; your weeping mother may recall your childish days, and may point to her shrunken breast and to her wrinkled brow. Francis of Aasisi enrolled was a beautiful girl of Assisi named Clara Sdfi^ with whom he had for some time carried on a dandes- tine correspondence, and whose flight from her father's home he both counselled and planned.^ As the first enthusiasm of asceticism died away, what was lost in influence by the &th6r was gained by the priest. {Ad Heliodorum), • manns, tamquam ignotos illos re- * St. ancy of Oriental philosophie By which deiihroned the active Stoidsm of the early Empire^ and placed its ideal of ex- cellence in contemplatiye virtues and in elaborate porir iications. Compare Massillon's enjoyments, and objects of am- famous Diacours au Bhiment de bition, advanced rather than dimi- Catinat : — * Ce qu'il y a loi de plus nished the hopes of salvation, deplorable, c'est que dans une vie Why should they fight for a perish- rude et p^nible, dans des emplois ing world, from which it was better dont les devoirs ptissent quelque- to be estranged ? It is singu- fois la rigueur des doitres les plus lar, indeed, l^t while we have seen aust^res, vous souffirez toujours en the Eastern monks turned into vain pour Tautre vie. The extinction of all public spirit, the base treachery and corruption pervading every department of the Government, the cowardice of the army, the despicable frivolity of character that led the people of Treves, when fresh from their burning city, to call for theatres and drcuses, and the people of Boman Carthage to plunge wildly into the excitement of the chariot races, on the very day when their city succumbed beneath the Yandal ; ^ all these things coexisted with extraordinary displays of ascetic and of missionary devotion. TAfriqne et des Ghiules.* — Atvdes * Chateaubriand very truly histor, vi"* discours, 2** partie. de la hommedans tolerated the orthodox Chute de VEmpire romain, tome i. Hie treacheiy of a rftligioni Bt to his oountiy no longer aigoed vi absence of all moral feeling.