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Victoria Crater on Mars as seen by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. It is a simple crater that has been partially filled in with sand---note the sand dunes on its floor.

It is noteworthy that about the time the heavy bombardment ended, life took hold.

Volcanism is any eruption of molten lava onto the surface.

The molten rock has a lower density than solid rock so it rises.

The oldest fossil evidence of ancient organisms dates back to 3.5 billion years ago and evidence for biological activity based on isotopic ratios of carbon date back to about 3.85, even up to 4.2 billion years ago, though the carbon isotope ratio evidence is controversial.