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A fire is kindled in the bottom and the dough is slapped against the hot interior walls, yielding curved disks of bread.

When the heat was sufficient the embers were raked out and the pieces of dough placed in the hollows and covered over.

In Jerusalem there was a bakers' quarter where bread was baked in tiers of stone-built ovens, or furnaces as they were called in the Bible.

bread yeast wheat flour rye flour maslin oatmeal semolina spelt ancient ovens Byzantine bread Chinese bread Colonial ovens Colonial bakeries Baking in America/Panschar French Revolution London prices Restaurant bread service anadama bread artisan breads bagels baguette banana nut bread bannock biscuits bishop's bread Boston brown bread brioche bread pudding bruschetta campaillou challah cheese straws ciabatta cinnamon rolls cinnamon toast cloverleaf rolls coffee cake colomba corn bread crackers cranberry bread crepes croissants croutons crumpets diet bread doughnuts Easter breads English muffins flatbreads flower pot bread focaccia National Loaf (UK) pain de campagne pain de mie pancakes panettone panforte panko paratha parbaked bread Parker House rolls Parthian bread pita popovers potato bread pretzel bread pretzels Pullman loaves pumpernickel pumpkin bread roti rye & Indian bread rye bread sandwich bread Sally Lunn salt rising bread scones Ship's biscuit sourdough stuffing & dressing tea cakes thirded bread toast tortillas waffles white bread whole wheat bread zucchini bread The history of bread and cake starts with Neolithic cooks and marches through time according to ingredient availability, advances in technology, economic conditions, socio-cultural influences, legal rights (Medieval guilds), and evolving taste. Variations in grain, thickness, shape, and texture varied from culture to culture.

Archaelogical evidence confirms yeast (both as leavening agent and for brewing ale) was used in Egypt as early as 4000 B. Food historians generally cite this date for the discovery of leavened bread and genesis of the brewing industry.

The Jews also had fixed ovens in some of their houses, frequently in the main rooms.

These ovens or hearths took the form of clay-covered hollows in the floor which were heated with burning wood.

Kiple and Kriemhild Conee Ornelas, Volume 1 [Cambridge University Press: Cambridge] 2000 (p.

619-620) "It seems that the discovery of ale was stimulated by the process of bread-making.

But there is an alternative and even more likely theory-that on some occasion ale instead of water was used to mix the dough.

The rise would be more spectacular than from a few errant spores and the effect would be easy to explain and equally easy to reproduce." ---Food in History, Tannahill (p.

The fact ovens based on this simple design formed the majority of those in use throughout Europe until little more than two centuries ago.